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METAMORPHOSIS OF 1 RUPEE COINS OF INDIA, 1835 TO 2010

METAMORPHOSIS OF 1 RUPEE COINS OF INDIA, 1835 TO 2010


Uniform coinage of India:


Prior to 1835 A.D., the East India Company issued coins in Bengal Presidency, Bombay Presidency and Madras Presidency. These coins were circulated in local area for use in the local trade.


For any particular value, the coins circulated in different areas of India were of different weight, fineness and size. In order to remove this chaotic condition, East India Company decided to introduce a uniform coinage in the territories of the company.


All the details of the new coinage were laid down by Act XVIII of 1835. As per this act the weight of the rupee coin was standardized at 180 grains troy (1 Tola) and its fineness at 11/12 (i.e. 165 grains of pure silver and 15 grains of alloy). The rupee coin would bear the effigy of the then king of United Kingdom.


Standard Silver Rupee:


Specifications


Weight- 180 grains


Metal composition- 165 grains of pure silver and 15 grains of alloy


Diameter – 1.3”


Shape - Circular


Edge – milled


Obv - effigy of the then king or queen of United Kingdom


Rev – Value of the coin



1835 – 1840 (King William IIII)



Obv - Head of William IV with the legend “WILLIAM IIII KING”


Rev – Value of the coin in English and Persian with the legend “EAST INDIA COMPANY”


All other specifications are same as described above.



1840, (First issue) (Queen Victoria– Continuous Legend)


Obv – Uncrowned head of Queen Victoria with the continuous legend “VICTORIA QUEEN”


All other specifications are same as described above.



1840 - 1861, (Second issue) (Queen Victoria– Divided Legend)


Obv - Uncrowned head of Queen Victoria with the divided legend “VICTORIA QUEEN”


Dia – Changed from 1.3” to 1.2”


All other specifications are same as described above.



After the Indian mutiny in 1857, the administration of India was transferred from East India Company to a Council of state under British crown. In the year 1858 Victoria was proclaimed as the queen of Great Britain
and colonies.



1862 - 1876, (Queen Victoria, Crowned head)


Obv - Crowned bust of Queen Victoria in place of uncrowned head design of the earlier issues with the divided legend “VICTORIA QUEEN”


Rev – Value of the coin in English only. Legend “EAST INDIA COMPANY” removed


All other specifications are same as described above.



On 1.1.1877 Queen Victoria assumed the title of “Empress of India”. Hence the inscription on the Rupee and
other coins was changed from “Victoria Queen” to “Victoria Empress”.



1877 - 1901, (Victoria Empress)



Obv - Crowned bust of Victoria Empress with the legend “VICTORIA EMPRESS”


All other specifications are same as described above.



1901 - 1910, (King Edward VII)


Obv – Uncrowned head of King Edward VII with the legend “EDWARD VII KING &
EMPEROR”


Rev – Crown of the king, coin value in English and Persian and a floral design.


All other specifications are same as described above.



King George V was coroneted on 22nd June, 1911 after the death of his father King Edward VII. Rupee coins were issued bearing his effigy from
1911 to 1922. No rupee coin was issued from 1923 to 1936.



1911 - 1936, (King George V)


Obv – Crowned head of King George V with the legend “GEORGE V KING EMPEROR”


Rev – Coin value in English and Persian with date surrounded with a floral design.


All other specifications are same as described above.



King George VI was coroneted in 1937. Rupee coins were issued bearing his effigy from 1938.



1937 - 1939, (King George VI)


Obv – Crowned head of King George VI with the legend “GEORGE VI KING EMPEROR”


Years of Issue – 1938, 1939


All other specifications are same as described above.



Quaternary Silver Rupee:


The 2nd World War started in 1939. Due to the war the price of silver rose high. The metal value of the silver rupee coin surpassed
its face value. Hence the Government decided to issue rupee and other Standard
Silver coins in quaternary alloy.



1940 - 1945, (King George VI)


Metal composition - quaternary alloy ( 50% silver,40% copper, 5% Nickel and 5% Zinc)


Edge – Security


Years of issue – 1940 to 1945


All other specifications are same as described above.



Pure Nickel Rupee:



Due to the rise of price of silver after the end of World war II, the Government decided to issue rupee and other Quaternary Silver coins, in pure Nickel.



1947, (King George VI)



Year of issue – 1947


Rev – Value in English, Hindi and Persian with a stalking tiger.


Metal composition – Pure Nickel


Diameter – 1.1”


All other specifications are same as described above.



1950 – 1956 ( Republic of India ) (Old Currency)


Years of issue – 1950, 1954


Obv – Lion Capital of Ashoka, with the legend “ GOVERNMENT OF INDIA “


Rev – A large 1 flanked by two ears of corn and value in English, and “Ek Rupaya” in Hindi.


All other specifications are same as described above.



1957- 1974 ( Republic of India ) (Decimal Currency)


Years of issue – 1962, 1970


Obv – Lion Capital of Ashoka, with “INDIA” in English and “Bharat” in Hindi


Rev – Same as above but value in Hindi changed to “Rupaya”.


Weight - 10 grams


Diameter – 28 mm


All other specifications are same as described above.



Cupro Nickel Rupee:


With a view to conserve Nickel which was in short supply throughout the world, the Government decided to issue rupee coins in cupro nickel with less weight.



1975-1982 (Big size rupee)


Years of issue – 1975 to 1982


Metal composition – Cupro-Nickel (75% Cupper and 25% Nickel)


Weight - 8 grams


All other specifications are same as described above.



1983-1991 (Small size rupee)


Years of issue – 1983 to 1991


Weight - 6 grams


Diameter – 26 mm


Edge – Security from 1983 to 1989, Upright milled from 1990 t0 1991


All other specifications are same as described above.



Stainless Steel Rupee:


Due to gradual rise in the price of cupper and Nickel, the intrinsic value of the cupro-nickel coins surpassed its face value. To check the large
scale diversion of these coins from circulation for melting purposes by dishonest
traders, the Government decided to gradually change cupro-nickel coins to steel
coins. In this regard steel coins in the denomination of 10p, 25p and 50p were
changed to steel from 1988. The rupee coin was issued in steel from 1992.



1992-2004 (Same design as 1983-1991 cupro nickel rupee)


Years of issue –1992 to 2004


Metal composition – Ferrite Stainless Steel (80.5% Iron, 18% Chromium)


Weight - 4.85 grams


Diameter – 25 mm


Edge – Upright milled from 1992 t0 1995, Plain edge from 1995


All other specifications are same as described above.



2004 – 2006 (Theme - Unity in diversity) (cross)



Years of issue –2004 to 2006


Obv – A cross dividing 4 dots with value in English and Hindi


Rev – “Bharat” in Hindi, “India”
in English at top, Lion capital and big 1 between 2 horizontal lines, Year
of issue at bottom


Edge - Plain


All other specifications are same as described above.



2007 – 2009 (Theme - Bharat Natyam) (One finger)


Years of issue –2007 to2009


Obv – A lady’s hand with pointing fore finger with a big 1 and “Rupaya” in Hindi,”Rupee” in English.


Rev – “Bharat” in Hindi, “India”
in English at top, Lion capital between 2 horizontal lines, Year of issue at bottom


All other specifications are same as described above.



* The pictures for some of the above post will be added soon after I get the photographs.


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Comment by rajeev kumar agrawal on September 10, 2013 at 2:15am

I have 1990 Calcutta Re1 coin with plain,reeded & security edges

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